Introduction to system analysis


System Definition and Concepts
General Theory systems
Manual and automated systems
Real-life Business Sub-systems
System Environments and Boundaries

1.  An active field in which analysts continuously learn new approaches and different techniques which help for building the system more effectively and efficiently, this is known as System Analysis and Design.
2.  To improve the organizational systems is the primary objectives of System Analysis and Design.
3.  We can conclude that System Analysis and Design is proven methodology which helps both scale of business i.e. large and small, and the rewards of utilizing information to its full capacity.
4.  The person in the organization, who is the most involved with System Analysis and Design is a system analyst, will enjoy a rich career that will enhance both skills of his/ her in both computer and interpersonal skills.
5.  The four phases through which all information systems move are planning, analysis, design and implementation all the projects required an understanding of organization concepts and behavior like change in management and team building.

System Definition and Concepts:

1.  Systema is a Greek word, and the term system is derived from this Greek word which means an organized relationship among functioning units and its components.
2.  System is designed to achieve one or more objectives hence a system exists.
3.  A system is an orderly group of interdependent components (components may be physical parts, or sub-system multilevel structure) linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific objective.

4.  System analysis: -
a.  Process of collecting and interpretation of facts, identification of problems, and decomposition of a system into its component is known as System analyst.
b.  The purpose behind the conducted of system analysis is to studying a system or system parts in order to identify the system objectives.
c.  System analysis is a problem solving technique which improves the system and it ensures that all the components of the system work efficiently to accomplish the system analyst purpose.
d.  The motive of a System analysis is to specify what the system should do.

5.  System Design: -
a.  System designing is a process of planning new business system or it can also replace the existing system by defining the components or modules of existing system to specify the specific requirements.
b.  How to accomplish the objective of the system is the goal of a System designer.

General Theory System (GST): -Bottom of Form
1.  General theory system and the theory of general systems have been developed to explain and explore the general behavior i.e. common to all of the various systems which found within the different disciplines.
2.  It is versatile in nature and finds a place between the level of specific relations within each academic field and the level of complete generalization of mathematics.
3.  General theory system provides much useful knowledge for new project as the structure of our program was critically analysis.
4.  The significance of the theory of general system is in threefold: -
a.  Many characteristics of a region can be regarded as systems and a general understanding of system behavior adds to regional processes. Aspects of general theory systems are concerned with the ways of forecast (predict) and understanding the behavior of complex or complicated and very large systems.
b.  The control of regional process is the second use of general systems. Not only for understand, the planner must be also able to guide a region’s development.
c.  At the third place systems theory is not for only helps in the understanding of regional process but it also helps in the modeling of them.

Manual and automated systems
Manual system: -
1.   A system which is done by hand, without using a computer system or any automatic system just like a book keeping system in which records are maintenance is done by hand is known as a manual system.
2.  In manual system transactions are written in journals, from the information is manually retrieved into a financial statements set.
3.  In Manual systems both can be wasted i.e. money and time because this system is maintained by hand hence a system needs a lot of time to search any recorded data in the system.
4.  Manual systems are much slower than computerized system and it suffers from higher rate of inaccuracy.
5.  Due to documents generated by manual processes and misplaces that effects on service delivery is quite obvious, since customer get frustrated which grows company reputation diminish.

Automated system: -
1.  A combination of both software and hardware which is designed and programmed to work automatically and there is no need of any human operator to provide inputs and instructions for each operations it can be termed as automated system.
2.   Automated system allow us to monitor our process in real time identify problems as they arrive.
3.   Automated system reduces the use of paper and makes data storable, and data can be retrieve very easily, and searchable.
4.   Once automated systems are implemented the time of our employees safe which was waste in searching for misplaced documents and time can be spent on more new strategic, value-generating activities. 

Difference Between manual and automated system: -



1.  Speed is the main difference between manual system and automated system.
2.  In Automated system accounting of software process data and to crates report is much faster than manual system.
3.  In automated system as compare to manual system calculations are done automatically in software programs, it also minimizes errors and increase efficiency.
4.  In Automated system once data is input we can create reports literally by pressing a button this can be done by using manual system.


1.  Cost is one more difference between manual and automated system.
2.  In manual system we use paper and pencil for accounting which is much cheaper than automated system because automated system requires a machine and software.
3.  As compare to manual system, automated system expenses associated with accounting software include training and program maintenance.



1.  Backup is the third and most important difference between manual and automated system.
2.  In manual system there is very less chance to backup of data if data is lost but in automated system data can be backup easily.
3.  In case of fire or other mishap all data can be saved and backed up in automated system but this is not possible in manual system.
Real-life Business Sub-systems: -
1.  Sub-systems are the component of a system, it can also be considered as a system with its own right.
2.  Consider a manufacturing firm it consist of five sub-systems they are as follow: -
a.  Product design
b.  Production
c.  Sales
d.  Delivery and
e.  Service
3.  Real life business sub-system is related to business, marketing, production, material and the future expenditure to business sub-system.
4.  The boundary of sub-systems is between the firm and its environment, and all the sub-systems work together to accomplish a goal.
5.  Real life business sub-system is a business planning which is related to everyone in the system.

Elements of a system: -

Outputs and Inputs: -

1.  An output which is useful for its user is the main aim of a system.

2.  The information that enters into the system for processing is the inputs.
3.  The outcome of the processing is output.  

Processor: -

1.  The element of a system that involves the actual transformation of input into output is the processor.
2.  Processor is the optional component of a system and it may modify the input either totally and partially and this is depending on the output specification.
3.  For handling the transformation input is also modified to enable the processor as the output specifications changes.

Control: -

1.  The element of control is used to guides the system.
2.  Control is the decision making sub-system which is used to controls the pattern of activities governing input, processing and output.
3.  The operating system and software controls the behavior of the computer system, to keep the system in balance what and how much input is needed is determined by the output specifications.

Feedback: -

1.  System that provides the control in a dynamic system i.e. feedback.
2.  Feedback that is routine in nature that encourages the performance of the system is positive feedback.
3.  Feedback that is informational in nature that provides the controller with information for action is negative feedback.

Environment: -

1.  The “super system” within which an organization operates in the environment.
2.  Environment is the source of external elements that strikes on the system.
3.  Environment determines how a system must function.

Boundaries and interfaces: -

1.  Any system must be defined by its boundaries.
2.  The limits that identify its component, process and interrelationship when it interfaces with another system are Boundaries.
3.  Every system has its own boundaries which defines its sphere of influence and control.
4.  The knowledge of the boundaries of a given system is vital in determine the nature of the system interface as compare to other system for a successful design.


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