System development life cycle




Introduction to Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

 Various phases of SDLC: Study, Design, Development, Implementation, Maintenance


Introduction to Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

1. To design, develop, and test high quality software a process is used by software industries that process is termed as Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) and Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) covers the detailed plan for building, developing, maintaining of the software.

2. We can also say that Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) is a type of frame work that defines the steps involved in the development of software at the each phases of SDCL.

3. Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) is also known as System Development Life Cycle and Synchronous Data Link Control.

4. System Development Life Cycle (SDCL) is a conceptual model that can be used in project management. It describes the stages involved in an information system development project.

5. We can apply Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) to technical and non-technical systems because any hardware and software will go through a development process, each process can be consideration as an iterative process with multiple steps.

6. The main aim of Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) is to produce high-quality software that meets to customer expectations within time and cost estimates.

7. Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) is a process followed for a software project in a software organization and Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) life cycle defines a methodology for improving quality of software and the all over development process.

Advantages and disadvantages of Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL): -


1. Working with Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) we have a clear view of our entire project, number of workers involved, estimated costs and timelines.

2. Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) gives a projected base cost of the project to the project managers.

3. The goals and the standards of the project is well defined and clear.

4. While working with Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) developers can move back a step if something does not go as expected.


1. In Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) there are some methods which are not flexible.

2. At the beginning of a project it can be complicated to estimate the overall cost.

3. Due to testing at the end of the development it cause slow down some development teams.

Stages or steps of Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) or various phases of the SDLC: -

1.    Plan and Requirement Analysis: -

a. Plan and requirement analysis is the first, most important, fundamental, and most critical stage of Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) to create a successful system.

b. First step of SDLC phase is performed or conducted by the senior members of the team and the input is taken from the customer, the sales department, and the domain experts in the industry.

c. Information gathered in planning and requirement analysis is used to plan the basic project approach and to conduct product feasibility study in the economical and technical areas.

d. The quality assurance requirements and identification of the risks associated with the project is also done in the planning stage. 

e. During this phase you disable exactly what you want to do and the problem you are trying to develop by :-

                                                     i.   Defining the problems the objective and resource such as personal and cost.

                                                                ii.   Studying the ability of purposing alternating solution after meeting with client, suppliers, consultants and employees.

                                        iii.   Studying now to make your product better than your competitors.

f. Once the plan and requirement is clearly understood the Software Requirement Specification (SRS) document is created and documents should be thoroughly understood by the developers and reviewed by the customer for future reference.


        2.   Defining requirements or feasibility study: -

a. Defining requirements or feasibility study is the second stage of Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) in this stage new system requirements are defined i.e. needed features, function and capabilities.

b. After the requirement phase is completed the next phase is to define the requirements and document software needs.

c. Defining requirements or feasibility study is conducted with the help of “Software Requirement Specification” document which is also known as “SRS” document.

d. Defining requirements or feasibility study includes everything which should be designed and developed during the life cycle of the project.

e. There are five types of feasibility checks they are as follow:-

               i.   Economic: - Economic says that the project can be completed by the developers in budget or not.

                  ii.   Legal: -Developers can handle the given project as cyber law and other regulatory framework.

                iii.   Operational feasibility: - Developers can create operations which are expected by the end user or client.

             iv.   Technical: - It is necessary to check whether the current computer system can support the software or not?

               v.   Schedule: - In schedule developers decided that the project can be completed within the given time or not.


        3.   Design the software: -

a. The third phase of Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) is design the software and system design documents are prepared as per the requirements specification document which helps to define overall system architecture.

b. Software Requirement Specification (SRS)is reference for the product architects who come out with the best architecture for the product to be developed.

c. DDS (Design Document Specification, it is more than one design approach for the product architecture which is proposed and documented in DDS.

d. DDS- Design Document Specification is reviewed by all the important persons like stakeholders and based on various parameters such as risk assessment, product robustness, design molecularity, budget and time, and after that best design approach is selected for the product.

e. There are two kinds of design documents developed in this space: -

                    i.   HLD- High Level Design

A.   There is a brief description of each module and name also.

B.   An outline about the functionality for each module.

C.   Relationship and dependencies between modules interface.

D.   Tables of databases are identified along with their key elements.


                  ii.   Low- level design

A.   The modules have functional logic

B.   Database has tables with include their type and size.

C.   Message error.

D.   For every module complete I/O method.


         4.   Coding or developing the software: -

a. After the third phase i.e. software design Coding and developing software is the fourth phase of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL).

b. Once the developer gets the Design document coding phase started, in this the design of the software is translated into source code and all the components of the software are implemented in this phase.

c. In this phase developer produces the software under the development phase. Depending on the methodology coding phase is conducted in sprits or as a single block effort.

d. In this phase business stakeholders should be engaged continuously to ensure that their product expectations are being met or not?

e. During this stage the programming code is generated as per DDS and the output of this phase is testable and functional software.

f. The coding guidelines must be followed by the developers which are defined by their organization and programming tools i.e. compiler, interpreter, debuggers etc. which are used to generate the code. Some high level programming languages are used for coding such as C, C++, Pascal, JAVA and PHP.


         5.   Testing or product testing: -

a. The fifth phase of Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) testing of the product, after the development of the software.

b.  Testing of the software phase of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) is one of the most important phases. To deliver the quality software without testing is impossible.

c.  The software is tested against the requirements to make sure that the products are solving the needs of the software that were gathered during the requirements stage.

d. To measure quality of the software there are wide varieties of necessary testing are as follows: -

                                    i.   Code quality

                                  ii.   Unit testing

                                iii.   Integration testing

                                  iv.   Performance testing

                                    v.   Security testing

e. Once the coding is completed testing is starts and the modules are released for testing and the developed software is tested thoroughly. If any defects found the software is assigned to developers to get fix then.


        6.   Installation or Deployment: -

a.  Installation of the software and deployment is the sixth phase of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL). Once the product is certified and no bugs or errors are found then the product is released formally in the market.

b. Once the product is tested the product is ready to deploy and it is formally released in the market to check that the product is done depending on the customer expectation.

c. The software is first released in a limited segment and tested in the real business environment or Used Acceptance Testing (UTA).

d. On the basic of the feedback the software is released with suggested enhancements in the targeting market segment.


       7.   Maintenance: -

a. The last phase i.e. seventh phase of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) is maintenance phase. It is the end of the beginning, so to speak.

b. After the deployment phase, once the client starts using the developed product or system the real issues then come up and requires to be solved from time to time this procedure where the care is taken for the developed product is known as maintenance.

c. Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) phase does not end here product must be monitored constantly to ensure proper operations.

d. If any issues come up and needs to be fixed or any enhancement is to be done is done by the developers.


SDLC Models: -

1. During the software development process there are various Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) models defined and designed which followed.

2. Models are also referred as Software process models.

3. There are the most important and popular Software Development Life Cycle (SDCL) models followed in the organization: -

a. Waterfall model

b. Iterative model

c. Spiral model

d. V-model

e. Big band model


(Note: - We will learn about this model in upcoming notes. Stay tune and keep supporting)

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