Language processor and specification


2. Language Processors: -


Language Processing activities

Fundamental of Language Processing

Fundamental of Language Specification

   Introductions to language processor: -

1. We know that a computer understands instructions in machine code i.e. 0s & 1s and the programs are mostly written in High Level Language like C, C++, JAVA etc. and they are called source code and it cannot be executed directly by the computer.

2. A language processor is special translator system software that is used to translate one code (source code) to another code (machine code).

3. Language processor can translate the source code or program code into machine code.

4. Source code or program code are written in HLL (High Level Language) which is easy for human understanding and machine code is written in LLL (Low Level language) which is easy for machine understanding.

5. We can also say that a language processor converts High Level Language into Low Level Language by the help of its types.

6. There are three types of language processor: -

a. Compiler

b. Assembler

                   c. Interpreter

    Compiler: -

1. Compiler is software i.e. used to converts a program written in High Level Language (source program) to Low Level Language (Machine code).

2. The language processor that reads the complete source code (written in HLL) as a whole in one and translate equivalent machine code (written in LLL) known as compiler. Example: - C, C++, C3.

3. The source code is translated to object code successfully by the complier if the source code is free of errors.

4. Compiler converts whole program at a time into machine code.

   Interpreter: -

1. Interpreter is a type of translation which translate source program into machine code.

2. The translation is done by language processor and executes it immediately before moving on the next line.

3. Translator executes source code line by line into machine code and if any error occurs in the statement the interpreter terminates its translation process at that statement and display an error message.

4. After the removal of errors then only interpreter moves on to the next line for execution.

5. The benefit of using interpreter is that it directly executes instructions written in programming language without converting them into object code or machine code.

6. Some examples of interpreter are, Perl, Python and Matlab.

Assembler: -

1. The program that is written in assembly language to convert it into machine code assembler is used.

2. The source program that contains assembly language instructions is input of assembler.

3. The output is understandable by the computer i.e. generated by assembler.

Language processing activities: -

1. The activities of language processing arise to bridge the ideas of software designer with actual execution on the computer system.

2. The ideas express by the designer in terms related to the application domain of the software and to implement these ideas their description has to be interpreted in terms related to the execution domain of the computer system.

3. A software is a language processor which either bridges specification gap or execution gap.

4. The fundamental of language processing activities can be divided into those that bridge the execution gap and specification gap.

5. Semantic gap is the gap between application domain and execution domain.

6. For a language processor the input program is termed as source program and language use for it i.e. termed as source language and the output program is termed as target program.


7. The language process activities are divided into two groups as follow:-

a. Program Generation Activities

b. Program Execution Activities  


Program Generation Activities: -

1. The program generator is a type of system software that is to be generated and generates a program in the target PL (Programming Language).

2. Due to this a new domain is generated between the application and PL (Programming Language) domain called as program generator domain.

3. Advantage of program generator is reduction in the specification gap increases the reliability of the generated program.

4. The arrangement of program generator is also reduces the testing effort

Program Execution Activities: -


        1. Program execution having two groups

    a. Translation: -

                    i.   Translation bridges the execution gap by translating source program into an target program(TP).

             ii.   It required before execution and saved in file and executed repeatedly.   

    b. Interpretation: -

                    i.   The work of interpretation is to read the source program and stores it in its memory

             ii.   Its work is as same as that of instruction execution.


Fundamental of language processing: -


            1. To describe fundamental of language processing we use a formula i.e.                       


             2. Analysis phase uses forward reference which means a program entity is a refer to the entity which precedes its definition in the program IR is  having some properties: -

a. Ease of use

b. Processing and memory efficiency


Figure of phases of language processing: -



        3. The source program (SP) passed through analysis phase and it generates Intermediate Representation (IR) which is further passed to synthesis phase which finally generate Target Program (TP).

       4. There are three types of source program analysis: -

a. Lexical Analysis: -

Lexical Analysis phase governs lexical rules in the source program i.e. identifier is proper or not.


b. Syntax Analysis: -

Syntax analysis check validity of statements for syntax in the source program.


c. Semantic Analysis: -

Semantic analysis checks the semantic rules in the source program.


    Passes of language of processor

Pass-I : - Performs analysis of source program and notes relevant information. Its help to build the symbol table.

Pass II : - Performs synthesis of target program.


Fundamental of language specification: -


1. A language specification is a formal language i.e. used in computer science and this language is not directly executed.

2. Language specification describe the system at a much higher level than a programming design.

3. Language specification are used during the systems analysis, requirements analysis and systems design.

4. Enabling the creation of proofs of program correctness is an important use of specification languages.

5. A common assumption of many specification approaches is that programs are modeled as algebraic or model theoretic structures which include a collection of sets of data values together with functions.



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