10/25/19

REGISTER TRANSFER LANGUAGE AND MICRO-OPERATIONS OF COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE

UNIT:-02

REGISTER TRANSFER LANGUAGE AND MICRO-OPERATIONS:- 


02.01 Concept of BUS, Data movement among register.    
  
02.02 A language to represent conditional data transfer. 

02.03 Data movement from/to memory.

(02.01) Concept of bus:-

What is BUS?
ð  A BUS is a data connection between two or more devices connected to the computer.
ð  A computer bus is consists of a set of parallel conductors, (parallel conductors may be conventional wires, copper tracks on a printed circuit board, or microscopic aluminum trails on the surface of a silicon chip.)
ð  We can also say the BUS is a group of wires that connects different components (i.e. Motherboard, Processor, Memory (ram), Power Supply, Hard disk) of computer.
ð  Bus is used to carrying data (transmitting data), control signal and memory address from one part/component to another part/component of computer.
ð  In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
ð  BUS stands for Bidirectional Universal Switch.
ð  A BUS can be in different size:-

1.  8-bit BUS
2. 16-bit BUS
3.  32-bit BUS and
4. 64-bit BUS

ð The transmission of information of BUS depends on its size. For Eg: - A bus of 8-bit can transmit 8-bit of information at a time. Similarly A bus of 64 –bit can transmitted 64-bit of information at a time.
ð A bus can be internal or it can be external.
ð Below given figure shows the data movement of BUS architecture.
ð There are three types of buses: -
1.    Address Bus
2.    Data Bus
3.    Control Bus

Data Bus
Ø  The bus which carries data only is called data bus.
Ø  The data of data bus is flow in both direction i.e. bidirectional (between the microprocessor (CPU) and memory (RAM).)


Ø  The width of a data bus is directly related to the largest number that the bus can carry.
Address Bus
Ø  Address BUS is a group of wires or conducting path which carries address/information only about the location of data in memory.
Ø   The data of address bus flow in one direction i.e. unidirectional. (between the microprocessor (CPU) and memory (RAM).)


Ø  Amount of memory a system can address is determined by the length of address bus,

Control Bus:
Ø  The control bus is used to generate timing and control signals, to make sure that everything is flowing smoothly from place to place.
Ø  Following are the control signals:-
ü  Memory read
ü  Memory write
ü  I/O read
ü  I/O write

 
Operation of Bus:-
The following operation of bus is as follows:
⇉⇉⇉            If One device want or wishes to send data to another device:
                            I.        Obtain the use of the device which want to send data to Bus
                          II.         Transfer data to the Bus.
⇉⇉⇉      If one device wishes to request data from another device:
             1. Obtain the use of Bus.
             2. Transfer a request to other device over the appropriate control and address lines. It has to wait for second device to send the data.





 Due to some problem this Unit is not complited as soon as possible it will complited keep checking THANK YOU




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