Introduction to system software



            1. INTRODUCTION:

    What is System Software?

    Components of System Software

    Evolution of System Software

    The model of a computer system

Introduction to system software or what is System Software? What is application software

1.   Computer software that is designed to provides platform to others software are called system software.

2.   System software is a collection of programs that are designed to operate, control, and extend the processing capabilities of the computer.

3.   System software is generally prepared by the computer manufactures and these software products are generally written in LLL (Low Level Language).

4.   System software is interacting with the hardware at a very basic level and it serves the interface between the hardware and the end users.

5.   Some example of the system software are as follows: -

a. Operating system (Windows XP,7,10, Mac OS, UNIX, LINUX)

b. Compilers

c. Interpreter

d. Assemblers

e. Antivirus software (Quick heal, Avast)

f. Disk formatting software.

1.  Some features of system software are as follows: -

a. System software is closed to the system.

b. System software is generally fast in speed.

c. It is difficult to design and difficult to understand.

d. System software is smaller in size.

e. System software is generally written in LLL (Low Level Language).

System software is broadly classified into three types they are as follows: -

1. System control programs: -

System control programs controls the execution of the programs and manages the storages and processing resources of the computer and perform other management and monitoring function.

2. System support program: -

System support programs provide routine service functions to the other computer programs and computer users i.e. utilities, libraries, performance monitors and other job accounting.


3. System development program: -

System development program assist in the creation of the application program.

 Difference between system and application software

Components of system software: -

Components of the system software are as follows

1.  Operating software: -(More about operating system)

a. An operating system can be defined as the interface between computer user and computer hardware.

b. Operating system also manages computer hardware, provides services for execution of application software and it consists of programs and data.

c. Operating system is a type of software which performs all basic tasks i.e. file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output and also controls peripheral devices like disk drives and printers etc.

d. Some examples of operating system are: -

Windows operating system

Mac operating system

UNIX operating system

LINUX operating system


2. Device driver: -

a. A special kind of the software program that controls specific hardware devices attached to a computer.

b. Device drivers are essential for computers so that they can work properly and they provide all the important means for a computer to interact with hardware for everything such as mouse, keyboard, and display to working with networks, storages and graphics.

c. A device driver simplifies programming to act as a translator between hardware devices and the applications that are going to use it.


3. Server: -

a. A program that operates as a socket listener in computer networking known as server.

b. A computer or series of computers act as a server that link other computers and they often provide essential services across network.

c. The servers network may be private users inside a large organization or it can be public users via the internet.


4. Utility software: -

a. The software which is used to manage the computer hardware and application software and performs small tasks.

b. Utility software analyses and maintains the computer and focuses on how operating system works on that basis.

c. Utility software perform task to enable smooth functioning of computer.

d. Some examples of utility software are virus scanner, file manager, disk composer, disk clean up tool etc.


5. Windowing system: -

a. Windowing system is a component of the GUI(Graphical User Interface)

b. It supports the implementation of window managers.

c. It provides basic support for graphics hardware and pointing devices such as mouse, and keyboards.


Evolution of system software: -

1. Software evolution is the process of development of the software product by using software engineering principles and methods.

2. In software evolution, it includes the initial development of the software and its maintenance and updates.

3. Software evolution work till desired software product is developed, which satisfies the expected requirements.

4. Evolution of system starts from the requirement gathering process. After which developers create a prototype to the studied software and show the prototype software to users to get feedback from them at early stage of the evolution of the software.

5. The end users suggest changes on the software, on which several consecutive updates and maintenance keep on changing too and this process changes the original software, till the desired software is accomplished.

Software evolution laws: - Lehman has given three laws for software evolution by dividing the software into three different categories:

           a. S-type (Static – type): -

                             i.   S-type (Static-type) is a software which works strictly according to defined specifications and solutions.

                           ii.   S-type is the simplest of all because in this software is least subjected to make changes like a computer program for mathematical computation.


        b. P–type (Practical- type): -

                             i.   P–type is software with a collection of procedures and it is defined by what exactly procedure can do.

                           ii.   In p-type software the specifications can be described but the solution in not direct instantly like gaming software.


        c. E-type (Embedded-type): -

                             i.   Embedded-type software works closely as the requirement of real world environment.

                           ii.   E-type or Embedded type software has a high degree of evolution as there are various changes in the real world situations like online trading software.

The model of a computer system: -

1. A computer based model is a type of computer program that is designed to simulate the situations what might be happen.

2. A model of computer system is used in many ways including in astronomy, science such as physics and biology.

3. This model can be used in the fields such as earthquake performance simulation and making models of buildings.

4. Computer models are used in models of the atmosphere for weather forecasts and to predict climate changes.

5. Agent based modeling is used to simulate social interactions in artificial intelligence.

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